Rom EA-treated mice in the presence of IL-4. It is not

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However, the Osmia had been diagnosed on the Ear?___) ?At least once a month but less than once a 28607003" title=View Abstract(s)">PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28607003 receptor expression was similar between macrophages from sham- and EA-treated mice. This early production of IL-4 and the presence of AAMo are associated with the susceptibility of this mouse strain to L. major infection [15,25]. Since macrophages from EA-treated mice were more responsive to IL-4, the outcome of infecting mice with L. major was examined. The lesion size in EA-treated mice was more pronounced than that in sham-treated mice, suggesting that EA increases IL-4 responsiveness in vivo and interferes with the outcome of infection by intracellular pathogens such as L. major. Electrical stimulation was not used in the shamtreated mice in our experiments. The experiments could rule out the effects of electrical current because of the small size of the mice.Rom EA-treated mice in the presence of IL-4. It is not clear how EA increases the IL4 responsiveness of PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27741243 macrophages, although EA and IL-4 could synergistically potentiate the responsiveness or interfere with some signal transduction from the IL-4 receptor. However, the mechanism is unlikely due to an increase in IL-4 receptor expression, because the IL-4 PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28607003 receptor expression was similar between macrophages from sham- and EA-treated mice. The generation of AAMo with high arginase activity is associated with a decreased ability to control intracellular parasites such as L. major, while NO production by cMO is associated with better control of these parasites [15]. Experiments have been performed using IFN-Aguiar et al. Chinese Medicine 2012, 7:17 http://www.cmjournal.org/content/7/1/Page 8 ofFigure 6 Lesions developed by sham- or EA-treated mice after L. major infection. BALB/c mice were treated with EA (15/30 Hz) at the Zusanli acupoint (ST36) for 20 min/d for 5 d. After the final EA session, the mice were infected with 2 ?106 stationary-phase promastigotes of L. major into one of the hind footpads. The lesion size was calculated as the difference between the left and right footpad measurements. The sham-treated mice received only needle insertion into a non-acupoint (gluteal muscle) without electrical stimulation. The data are represented as mean ?SD of two independent experiments containing three mice in each group. *P